Abstract Inventions

Advanced insight. Reasoning at the extremes.

©Copyright Andrew R. Hall Abstract Inventions 2015. All rights reserved.


  • Universal Keystone Equation

  • Evaluation of the UKE

    The Universal Keystone Equation

    It is easy to use the UKE to calculate the value of G once you know a couple of things...

    h is Planck's constant with a value of 6.62606957e-34 Wikipedia

    c is the speed of light with a value of 299792458 m/s Wikipedia

    To calculate G in Excel enter; =(9*h/c)^(1/4)

    In Excel, you need to enter the values for h and c, or reference cells containing the values to make the calculation work.

    This evaluates as 6.678354E-11 to 6 d.p. This is well within the range of experimentally derived values. The table below summarises some of the quoted values from the Gravitational Constant Wikipedia Page.

    Source Value of G
    Torsion Balance Experiment 6.67384(80)×10−11
    Cold Atom Interferometry 6.693(34)×10−11
    Improved Cold Atom Interferometry G= 6.67191(99)×10−11

    More interestingly, as an algebraic expression it can be subtituted for G in other equations.

    How was the UKE relationship found?

    As with many things in life the invention of this expression was a bit of a surprise. I was thinking about how energy travelling in straight lines could become bent round and locked into a box. The equation E=hc/lambda was one of my equations but I was also thinking about h/c. I considered that I had heard about there being a mystery as to why gravity was so much weaker than electromagnetism by a factor of about 10e-40 so I did the following sums as show in the excel excerpt pictured below:-

    As the result at step 3 looked familiar I just played with square roots of numbers I knew and very quickly found that I was looking at sqrt(3)/3 which I guess just stuck in my my head from 3 phase electrical power calculations I did at university. Finding such a close geometrical tie-in seemed an unlikely coincidence, so I thought I may be onto something useful. I tidied up the equation and went on to explore it further. I used a similar method of comparison of values to get my expression for h in terms of c.